Shop: The Works of Bishop Butler

Bishop Butler

His life, writing & theology.

Search this site

Butler's Influence in the Nineteenth Century

These notes sketch Butler's influence and include extensive suggestions for further reading. Citations are listed in alphabetical order by author's last name.
  • Argyll, George Campbell, Duke of

  • Arnold, Matthew

    • "Written In Butler's Sermons" in The Strayed Reveller and Other Poems London: B. Fellowes, 1849
    • "Bishop Butler and the Zeitgeist", Contemporary Review XXVII (1876) 377-395, 571-592, reprinted in Last Essays on Church and Religion.


    • Blackburn, William.
      "Bishop Butler and the Design of Arnold's Literature and Dogma." Modern Language Quarterly (1948).
    • Edgeworth, T.Y.
      "Mr. Matthew Arnold on Bishop Butler's Doctrine of Self-Love" Mind (old series, 1876)
    • Ingram, John K.
      "Bishop Butler and Matthew Arnold: A Note." Hermathena (1876)
    • Trilling, Lionel.
      Matthew Arnold, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1939, 1954.
  • Bagehot, Walter

    (1826-1877). "Bishop Butler," Prospective Review X. 40 (1854) 524-574, reprinted in his Literary Studies
  • Balfour, Arthur

    (1848-1930). The Foundations of Belief, London: Longmans, 1895.
  • Blunt, John James

    (1794-1855). "The Writings of Bishop Butler," Quarterly Review 43 (1830) 182-215.
  • Browning, Robert

    • Anderson, V.P.

      Robert Browning as a Religious Poet 1983. k.429p bib ref
    • Collins, J. Churton.

      "Browning and Butler," Contemporary Review (1910)
    • Collins, John.

      "Browning and Butler," 1912 .
    • Timko, Michael.

      "Browning upon Butler; or, Natural Theology in the English Isle," Criticism 7.2 (Spring 1965) 141-150.
  • Butler, Samuel

    • Breuer, Hans Peter.

      "Samuel Butler's 'The Book of the Machines' and the Argument from Design," Modern Philology 72.4 (May 1975) 365-383.
  • Caird, John

    (1820-1898). "It must be acknowledged that the influence of Butler and the school to which he belonged has all but passed away, yet his works at least afford a landmark by which we may measure the distance, whether in advance or retrogression, that separates the theological mind of the eighteenth century from that of our own day."

    John Caird (1882) 192.

  • Church, R.W.

    • Smith, B. A.

      Dean Church: The Anglican Response to Newman London: Oxford University Press, 1958.
  • Darwin, Charles

    (1809-1882). On the Origin Of Species. Epigraph from Butler in Editions of. 1860, 1861, 1869, 1872.


    • Irvine, William.
      Apes, Angels, and Victorians. New York: The World Publishing Company, 1955, 1959, 1968.
    • Manier, Edward.
      The Young Darwin and His Cultural Circle, 1978.
    • Rachels, James.
      Created from Animals , 1990.
  • Gladstone, William Ewart

    (1809-1898) "Bishop Butler and His Critics."
    • The Nineteenth Century (and After) (1895), "Bishop Butler."
    • Good Words 1896
    • Studies Subsidiary to the Works Of Bishop Butler Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1896.


    • Butler, Perry.
      Gladstone: Church, State, and Tractarianism, A study of his religious ideas and attitudes, 1809-1859, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
    • Hunt, John.
      "The Statesman Turned Theologian." Contemporary Review (1873).
    • Morley, John.
      The Life of William Ewart Gladstone, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1903, 1904, 1909, 1911, 1921.
    • Oliphant, M.O.W.
      "Verdict of Old Age." Blackwood's 160 (October 1896) 555-571.
    • Robertson, John Mackinnon.
      "Mr. Gladstone on Butler (1896)" in Studies in Religious Fallacy, London: Watts & Co., 1900, pp. 116-147.


    • anonymous.
      Review of works (1896), Church Quarterly Review XLII 83 (1896) 202-206.
    • anonymous.
      Review of Gladstone (1896), Church Quarterly Review XLII 85 (1896) 1-27.
    • anonymous.
      "Mr. Gladstone's Butler," London Quarterly Review LXXXVII (1897) 247-269. Mixed review.
    • anonymous.
      Review of works (1896 ed.), Mind VI 23 (1897) 423-424.
    • Armstrong, Richard A.
      "Mr. Gladstone and Bishop Butler," The New World V 20 (1896) 691-705. Very critical of Gladstone.
    • Brown, Frank.
      Mr. Gladstone's Edition of Butler, Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, 1896. Favorable.
    • Cooper, Jacob.
      Book Reviews 3.11 (March 1896) 308-310, by a profound admirer of Butler and of Gladstone
    • Cooper, Jacob.
      "Gladstone's edition of Bishop Butler's Works," Bibliotheca Sacra 53.211 (July 1896) 494-521, published as a regular article, not as a review
    • Cooper, Jacob.
      "Gladstone's Butler," Reformed Quarterly Review, 43.2 (April 1896) 186-206 and "Gladstone's Studies in Butler," Reformed Quarterly Review 43.4 (October 1896) 441-453
    • Gibb, John.
      Critical Review of Theological and Philosophical Literature 1896.
    • Richards, C.A.L.
      "A Modern Statesman and an Old Divine" The Dial 20.236 (April 16, 1896) 232-235. Very favorable to Butler, describes the times.
    • Robertson, J. M.
      (see 1900). A hard critic.
    • Salmond, S.D.F.
      Critical Review of Theological and Philosophical Literature. 1896.
    • Stephen, Leslie.
      "Bishop Butler's Apologist," The Nineteenth Century 39.227 (January 1896) 106-122.
    • Wright, Theodore F.
      "The Value of Butler's Analogy," The New-Church Review (Boston) 3.2 (April 1896) 241-256.
    • Wright, Theodore F.
      "Gladstone on Bishop Butler," The New-Church Review 3.4 (October 1896) 631-633.
  • Hampden, Renn Dickson

    (1793-1868). An Essay on the Philosophical Evidence of Christianity; or, The Credibility Obtained to a Scriptural Revelation, from its coincidence with the Facts of Nature. London: John Murray, 1827, 314p.
    • Swanston, Hamish F.G.

      Ideas of Order: Anglicans and the renewal of theological method in the middle years of the nineteenth century, Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Comp. B.V., 1974, chapters on Hampden, Mansel, Maurice and Jowett, all in relation to Butler.
    • Hennell, Sara S.

      Essay on the Skeptical Tendency of Butler's Analogy, 1859.
    • Anonymous review of Hennell

      (1859), British Quarterly Review XXXVIII.75 (1863) 97-125, reprinted as "Bishop Butler and His Recent Critics," anonymous review of Hennell (1859) Theological Eclectic I (1864) 159-191.
  • Holland, Henry Scott

  • Huxley, Thomas Henry

  • Laurie, Simon S.

    Notes Expository and Critical on Certain British Theories and Morals, 1868
  • Lightfoot, Joseph Barber

    (1828-1889). Leaders in the Northern Church , 1892, Chapter 10.
  • Lincoln, Abraham


    As a lawyer, he needed only a comparatively limited repertoire of reading, but William Herndon's description of the reading on offer in the Lincoln-Herndon law office suggests much wider intellectual horizons, including both American and English philosophy, religion and political economy. Lincoln's particular favorites in the last category were J.S. Mill, Henry Carey, and above all, Francis Wayland. Even in the White House, he told Noah Brooks that he "particularly liked" Bishop Joseph Butler's famous Analogy of Religion (1736) and hoped to "get at" Jonathan Edwards's Freedom of the Will (1754). He was, in sort, a far more literate president than we have given him credit for; and his intellectual contexts gave far more important shape to his political life than we have given them credit for.

    Dr.Allen Guelzo ... 1999/11/29 - 18:42:34 [The reference here is to Lincoln Observed: Civil War Dispatches of Noah Brooks, edited, by Michael Burlingame. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U P, 1998, p. 219.]

  • Mansel, Henry L.

    (1820-1871). Limits of Religious Thought. 1858.
    • Swanston, Hamish F.G.

      Ideas of Order: Anglicans and the renewal of theological method in the middle years of the nineteenth century, Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Comp. B.V., 1974, chapters on Hampden, Mansel, Maurice and Jowett, all in relation to Butler.
  • Maurice, Frederick D.

    (1805-1872). Modern Philosophy. 1862. The Conscience, 1868.
    • Mozley, J.B.

      "Maurice's Theological Essays." Christian Remembrancer (1854), reprinted 1892.
    • Swanston, Hamish F.G.

      Ideas of Order: Anglicans and the renewal of theological method in the middle years of the nineteenth century, Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Comp. B.V., 1974, chapters on Hampden, Mansel, Maurice and Jowett, all in relation to Butler.
  • Mill, John Stuart

  • Mount Allison University.

    Wesley's concern for both piety and general education produced an ambivalence in Methodist education. The Methodists developed a non-sectarian curriculum at institutions with a denominational affiliation.
  • Oriel Noetics.

    (liberal wing of the church, circa 1822): Edward Copleston, Richard Whately, Edward Hawkins, Blanco White, Thomas Arnold.
  • Patmore, Coventry

  • Pattison, Mark

    (1813-1884). "Tendencies of Religious Thought in England 1688-1750" in Essays and Reviews , 1860.
  • Sidgwick, Henry

    (1838-1900). Methods of Ethics, material added in 6th ed. 1874, 1901. Outlines of the History of Ethics for English Readers, 1886.
    • Schneewind, J. B.

      Sidgwick's Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Smith, Goldwin

    (1823-1910). Rational Religion, and the Rationalist Objections of the Bampton Lectures for 1858 , 1861.
  • Spooner, W.A.

  • Stephen, Leslie

    (1832-1904). History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 1876. "Butler, Joseph." Dictionary of National Biography, 1886.
  • Tennyson, Alfred, Lord

    • Tennyson, Charles.

      Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1949, reprinted 1950, written by his grandson, mentions Coventry Patmore's knowledge of Butler.
    • Culler, A. Dwight.

      The Poetry of Tennyson New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
  • Tracts for the Times.

    Tracts mentioning Butler include: Number 13, Number 19, Number 79, Number 80, Number 84.
  • Whately, Richard

  • Whewell, William

    (1794-1866). Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England. London: John W. Parker and Son, 1852, 265p, Butler in part of Lecture 8, pp. 108-114.